First Aid CPR

By: Steve Pilot
Published On: Sat 10. Nov 2018

CPR is relatively easy to perform, but it is difficult to sustain for long periods of time. The simple instructions below do not substitute practicing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a CPR manikin, but these basic steps should bring you up to date with current guidelines and improve your confidence.

These guidelines are based on the AHA's CPR 2011 current recommendations on first aid CPR for adult, child, and infant, within the Americas and Asia Pacific regions. These advisory notes are produced in accordance with the AHA, ERC, and ARC, as part of ongoing research by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR).

Studies have shown the importance of providing fast and effective chest compressions as a critical aspect in treating a patient who has suffered cardiac arrest. Most practices, such as the compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2, have not changed. Compression-only CPR continues as a recommendation for untrained individuals, but the recommendation remains for the trained lay rescuer to perform chest compressions combined with ventilations.

Patient Care; Adult CPR

  • STOP - Assess and observe the scene
  • THINK - Consider your safety and form action plan
  • ACT - Check responsiveness
  • ALERT EMS

If it is safe to touch the patient, tap on their collarbone or shake their shoulders to determine whether the victim is responsive. If not, assess for breathing but for no longer than 10 seconds. Abnormal, infrequent, inadequate gasping is not normal breathing and you should treat a victim with agonal breaths as though they are not breathing

Try to summon help from a bystander, alert the emergency medical services, and begin CPR. Provide 30 chest compressions, then open the airway and give two breaths (begin with ventilations if you suspect possible drowning)

Position the heel of one hand between the nipples on the breastbone and place the other hand on top of the first. Compress an adult's chest to a depth of at least 2 inches (5 cm) and release quickly back to the normal position; Uninterrupted chest compressions are the most important part of CPR

Responders without formal training in CPR are encouraged to concentrate on providing continuous chest compressions by pushing a depth of at least five centimeters and at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Push hard and fast. The musical beat from the Bee Gee's song 'Staying Alive' will help you achieve the correct speed

If there is more than one rescuer present, continue CPR while the AED is switched on and the pads are placed on the patient; This will minimize interruptions in chest compressions; Although there is reduced emphasis on barrier use (still recommended) treatment should not be delayed if barriers are not available

If the patient begins breathing, manage serious bleeding, shock, and spinal injury

Patient Care; Child & Infant CPR (0 to 12 years old)

  • STOP - Assess and observe the scene
  • THINK - Consider your safety and form action plan
  • ACT - Check responsiveness
  • ALERT EMS

Begin CPR by providing 30 chest compressions, then open the airway and give two breaths (begin with rescue breaths if you suspect possible drowning)

Compression depth for children and infants is one third the diameter of the chest. This corresponds to approximately 2 inches (5cm) for children and 1½ inches (4cm) for infants

If there is more than one rescuer present, continue CPR while the AED is switched on and the pads are placed on the patient to minimize interruptions in chest compressions

For infants (less than 1 year of age) use of an AED with paediatric dose reducer is recommended. An AED without a dose attenuator may be used for children if a pediatric one is not available.

Although there is reduced emphasis on barrier use (still recommended) treatment should not be delayed if barriers are not available

If the patient begins breathing, manage serious bleeding, shock, and spinal injury